© 2006 - 2010 Michael Schierl, <schierlm at users dot sourceforge dot net>
In 2006, jTCPfwd (“Jay-Tee-Cee-Pee-Forward”) started as a simple Java command line tool to forward TCP ports. Lots of other features are added, especially for forwarding TCP connections over various other means (the simplest being reverse TCP connections, but also UDP/HTTP tunnelling or writing files to a network share) or for combining/splitting TCP connections to reduce the number of ports needed. The first public release was done in 2010.
There is a lite version available, that will only use socket types supported by Java, and is therefore a lot smaller. The full version uses a lot of custom socket types, therefore has a lot more features, but is also larger.
jTCPfwd uses a modular architecture, and other modules can be added on the fly just by adding classes/jars to the class path. In fact, the only difference between the lite and the full version is the amount of modules included in the jar file.
In case you need a lite version containing a different (smaller or larger) set of modules, the CustomLiteBuilder can be used to create a custom jar containing exactly the moduels you need.
There are different kinds of modules: Listeners, Forwarders and Destinations. Some listeners and forwarders may support additional module types specific to them, but that is the exception and not the rule.
The basic workflow of jTCPfwd is quite simple: At the start, pairs of listeners and forwarders are created (one forwarder for each listener). Each of the listeners is running all the time trying to produce new sockets (for example by listening on a TCP port, but it can also be by running a servlet or by polling on a file system). Whenever the listener is able to create a socket, the socket is passed to the forwarder, which will try to create a matching socket to forward to. Usually the passed socket argument is not used, but in some cases (like the DeMux forwarder), the forwarder may examine the socket or even read data from it. If the forwarder was able to create a new socket, data is forwarded between those two sockets and whenever one socket gets closed, the other one is closed as well. In case the forwarder fails to create a new socket for the listener, the listener's socket is closed immediately.
There are several places where a module needs an IP/Port combination to connect to (or to do something else with it). Most of the time, the combination will be static, but in some cases (for example when working with proxies, other stateful protocols, or when doing load balancing), a (more or less) simple algorithm is used to determine the next IP/port combination. That is what Destination modules are used for.
Run jTCPfwd as
java -jar jTCPfwd.jar 1234 www.google.com:80 1235 www.bing.com:80
This will forward local port 1234 to Google, and local port 1235 to Bing. For more advanced features, read on.
Listeners and forwarders are specified by a single parameter on the command line. The first (optional) part states the type of the listener/forwarder (listener types and forwarder types have different names) and ends with an @ symbol. The second part states the parameters of the listener/forwarder. For the "Simple" forwarder, the type can be omitted, so a "Simple@1234" listener can be written as "1234" and a "Simple@www.google.de:80" forwarder can be written as "www.google.de:80". The syntax of the parameters can be different for each module. However, a lot of modules share the same argument syntax: The first character after the @ states a delimiter, and this delimiter is used to split the rest of the arguments. In this manual, the delimiter is always written as #, but any other character (that does not appear in one of the arguments) can be used.
Destinations (inside listener or forwarder parameters) are specified in a different way. The default destination format is "<host>:<port>" where the last colon is used to delimit host and port. Other destinations are prefixed by ":Name:", where Name is the name of the destination. The default destination format can also be referred by the ":Simple:" name, therefore, all these forwarder rules are equal:
"www.google.de:80" / "Simple@www.google.de:80" / ":Simple:www.google.de:80" / "Simple@:Simple:www.google.de:80"
Another common element that is used in several parameters is a number range, also known as number expression. These ranges are used to specify numbers for which an action should be taken - for example, the round robin forwarder uses them to specify which request should be sent to a specific destination, and the coupler uses them to specify which listeners should be connected to each other. These number formats are similar to print page rules used in word processors or similar to cron rules. I think everyone can understand rules like "1-3" or "1,3,4-9,11", but there are some special cases that might not be intuitive. "*" means "all numbers", "1-20/3" is "1,4,7,10,13,16,19", "1-30o" is "1-30/2", and "1-30e" is "2-30/2". Start and/or end of ranges can be omitted.
Some modules require binary arguments, like encryption keys. They can be specified via binary expressions. As those kind of data tend to be given in several differnent formats, you can give a list of transformations (separated by colons), followed by data to be transformed. Each transformation is applied on the result of the previous transformation. Therefore, hex:base64:NzQ2NTczNzQ= will result in test.
An empty transformation name will stop parsing transformations; therefore, to match the literal (UTF-8) bytes C:\>, the expression :C:\> can be used. If no encoding is given, everything is encoded as UTF-8. An explicit encoding can be given by using the encode-<encoding>: transformation.
Optionally, a secondary expression can be parsed at the same time, for example an initialization vector for an encryption key or a mask for matching data.
The following tranformations are supported:
When using the expression for matching bytes instead of creating them, and a mask is supported, the special transformation regex:someRegex can be used to give a regex the bytes have to match (using the ISO-8859-1 charset.)
In fact, there are two ways to invoke jTCPfwd: Either you can give all listener/forwarder pairs on the command line (first parameter is the first listener, then its forwarder, then the next listener, etc.), or you can put all listeners and forwarders into a config file (one listener and its forwarder on each line, lines starting with # being ignored) and refer to it on the command line as "@filename".
To test destinations (or to somehow else use their created socket addresses from outside jTCPfwd), you can use the -listdestination parameter, followed by a count and a destination parameter. The given detination is "queried" for the given number of times, and the results are printed to stdout.
To build a custom Lite version, run
java -cp jTCPfwd.jar jtcpfwd.CustomLiteBuilder <listeners> -- <forwarders> [-- <destinations> [-- <filters> [-- <knockrules>]]]
to include the given listeners, forwarders, destinations, filters and knock rules. Each module can be given by its name; for listeners and forwarders a full module argument with @ and parameters can be used as well, which will load the listener/forwarder (i. e. ports etc. must be free at time of invocation) and include all of its dependencies automatically.
This is the most common destination type. It will just create the same destinaiton for each socket to forward, pointing to the given host and port. The host may contain colons.
This destination type will return different destinations on each invocation. A connection counter is increased for each connection attempt. Each number expression will be checked whether it matches the current connection counter, and the first match will be returned as the destination. You can use arbitrary destination types for each of the destinations given (even :RoundRobin: ones), but usually you will use simple destinations. If no number expression matches, the destination will not return any address, which in turn will fail the listener/forwarder trying to use that destination.
This is the most straight forward listener. It will listen on a TCP port, either on all interfaces or only on the one that has assigned the given address, and return all sockets it can accept there.
This listener ist designed to be used in combination with the Reverse@ forwarder, to provide a simple "TCP gender changer forwarder".
This listener will try to create a TCP connection to the given destination and wait until it receives a 42 byte on it. If the connection is closed or any other byte is received, the connection will be discarded and a new one will be opened. If the correct byte is received, the socket is returned (as if it was an accepted socket).
This listener is a way to treat forwarders as if they were listeners. This is mainly so that "special" kinds of sockets that do not have a concept of accepting connection only need a forwarder, not a listener as well.
This listener will try to connect to the given forwarder after the given delay (default 0), and repeat this connection attempts until the forwarder produces a socket, each time waiting the given delay in between. As soon as the socket is produced, it is returned (as if it was an accepted socket) and the forwarder is asked again to produce yet another socket. If count is not 0 (which is also the default), the listener will stop asking the forwarder as soon as count sockets have been accepted successfully.
This listener will accept a socket from its chained listener. The socket is then examined if its source address matches any of the given filters, and if any one matches the socket will be returned. If no filter matches, the socket is closed and the next accepted socket is tested.
Each filter may give a host name or IP address and an optional prefix. If no CIDR prefix is given, the host must match exactly. If a CIDR prefix is given, only the given number of bits must match (like CIDR prefixes are usually interpreted). For example, 192.168.4.0/23 will match 192.168.4.0 to 192.168.5.255. If you are unfamiliar with CIDR prefixes, you can use any available subnet calculator to convert your subnet mask to a CIDR prefix.
Creates a socket that listens for SSL connections (using the given SSL options), but otherwise acts like a simple listener.
This is a pseudo listener, in the sense that it will never return a socket as accepted, but handle´ everything internally. Nevertheless, you will have to give a forwarder for it, which can be any simple forwarder or something like RoundRobin@#, as it will not be used at all.
In the parameters, you can specify one or more listeners (usually more). For each listener, you give a number expression to determine to which other listeners data received on that socket will be forwarded (listeners are numbered from 1 to n from left to right) and some optional flags (as characters at the beginning of the number expression). As a special case, data will not be returned to the socket itself unless the + flag is given; that way you can just use the * expression to send data to all other sockets.
This listener will ask all the listeners in turn for a socket. As soon as a sufficient number of sockets has been returned (one from each listener), data will be forwarded according to the number expressions. As soon as all sockets are closed, or one of the sockets that has the ! flag given is closed, all sockets will be closed (if not already) and the coupler will restart.
If the first delimiter character after the @ is doubled, the coupler will start a new thread once all sockets have been created so that more couples can be built while the first one is forwarding data.
This is an example for a coupler that acts like forwarding traffic from port 11001 to localhost:11002 (but will need more CPU than a simple forwarder): Coupler@##!*:11001#!1:Forwarder@localhost:11002 RoundRobin@#
This is the most straightforward forwarder. It will forward all data via TCP to the given destination.
This is the counterpart to the Reverse@ listener. At initialization, it will listen on the given TCP port (and optional interface), waiting for a connection. Accepted sockets are buffered, until the forwarder is asked to forward; then the first connection is taken, a 42 byte is sent over the socket and all data is forwarded to that socket.
This forwarder is mostly used for communication with other tools (like socat). It will listen on the given TCP port (and optional interface), wait for one connection, stop listening and forward all data to the accepted socket.
It is also optionally possible to specify peer filter rules like with the PeerFilter@ listener. Connections that do not match this rule will be closed again immediately, without stopping the listening (so that the right peer gets another chance to connect.)
If a timeout (in milliseconds) is given, the listening will be aborted after the timeout and no socket will be returned. (In combination with a peer filter rule, it is possible for a blocked host to prevent the listening from timing out if it sends connection requests sufficiently fast, but in practice this is rarely a problem).
This forwarder will try for count times (or unlimited if count is 0) to create a socket using the given forwarder. Between each retry there is a delay of delay milliseconds. If the creation is successful, data will be forwarder to the created socket. Otherwise, this forwarder will fail to create a socket, too.
This forwarder is usually used in combination with the DeMux@ forwarder. It will try to create a socket using the given forwarder, and then send an idx byte over the socket before the data is forwarded, which can be used later to distinguish different Mux@ forwarders.
If auth is given (which has to consist of only US-ASCII characters), it is sent over the wire before sending the index byte. This can be used as a poor man's authentication since the corresponding DeMux@ forwarder will refuse the connection if the bytes are not sent.
This forwarder will read one byte from the socket provided by the listener (a feature rarely used), which will be used to look up the forwarder to create a socket for this listener socket. Usually the byte is produced by several Mux@ forwarders, to make it possible to use one single port for forwarding different kinds of connections.
As a convenience, special characters can be used in the index as wildcards. For example, DeMux@#10=localhost:99#1$%=localhost:1$$%% will redirect 101 different indices: index 10 to port 99, index 100 to port 1000, 101 to 10011, 102 to 10022 and so on, 109 to 10099, 110 to 11100, 111 to 11111, and so on, up to 198 to 19988 and 199 to 19999.
The auth token is expected on the socket before reading the index byte. See the Mux@ forwarder description above for details.
Using the same syntax as the PeerFilter@ listener, this forwarder can be used to forward connections to different forwarders, depending of the IP address of the listener socket. The first match is taken, if none matches, the connection is refused.
This forwarder works similar to the destination of the same name; the main difference is that if a forwarder matches but fails to produce a socket, the next matching forwarder will be tried (if a round robin destination produces an address but the forwarder cannot connect to it, the whole forwarder will fail). In addition, if the separator character behind the @ is doubled and no forwarder can produce a socket, this forwarder will wait for one second and then retry all the expressions. (This behaviour can also be achieved by using the Retry@ forwarder around this forwarder.)
In particular, RoundRobin@# will always fail to produce a socket, and RoundRobin@## will take forever to produce a socket.
Creates a SSL socket to the given destination (using the given SSL options), but otherwise acts like a simple forwarder.
SSL options have the form <key>=<value>.
Override whether this socket should be in client or server mode. By default, listeners are in server mode, and forwarders are in client mode.
Configure that the client should or must provide a client certificate. The server always has to provide a certificate.
Configure which SSL protocols may be used. Protocols can be matched both by their internal name (like TLSv3) and by their full name (Enabled:TLSv3, as TLSv3 is enabled by default). Every protocol that matches the includepattern but does not match the excludepattern (if given) will be enabled. The default include pattern is Enabled:.*.
If no available protocols match, a list of the full names of all supported protocols is printed.
Configure which SSL ciphers (cipher suites) may be used. Pattern matching works the same way as for protocols.
Enable a key for being used. The key is found in the keystore specified by the next option, or the default keystore, which is decrypted using the given store password. If no alias is given, the alias is determined by the SSL parameters used (so that you can have both a RSA and a DSA key in the keystore). If an alias is given, only this alias is used. The keypassword must be either given or the same as the store password.
Specify the filename of the keystore to be used to obtain the key. If unset, $HOME/.keystore is used. Note that giving a filename will not enable using a key, which is done by the previous option.
Specify the trust store to use. If a filename is given, that one is used as the trust store. If - is given, all keys are assumed to be trusted. By default, the JRE's cacerts store is used as a trust store.
Listen at the given listener and wait for the first connection. This connection is used to transfer addresses from a different module. See the SOCKS@ listener for details.
This listener produces only one socket ever, which will transport an encoded version of all the sockets accepted by the listener. This can be used to forward multiple connections over a connection that by design only supports one connection, or where connection establishment is expensive.
Used to tunnel multiple (TCP) connections via UDP
Used to tunnel a single (TCP) connection via UDP. Less overhead than UDPTunnel@
Listen on a UDP port and tunnel UDP packets via a (TCP) connection. A given part of the UDP packets can be dropped to test how UDP protocols cope with packet loss.
Listen via a SOCKS proxy. Destination is giving the host and port of the connection whose peer should connect to that port. When the bind was successful, the ephemeral address and port of the connection are either sent via the given address stream or printed to stdout, if no address stream is given.
Start a SOCKS proxy on the given port. A forwarder has to be given, but is ignored.
Accept a connection from a Restartable@ forwarder; connections may disconnect at any time, and will be re-established by the forwarder.
Tunnel connections via the filesytem: Monitor the given directory and create a new connection when a file appears there.
Tunnel a single connection via the clipboard. Another jTCPfwd instance that have access to the same clipboard (possibly via remote desktop connections) can create the connection using a Clipboard@ forwarder.
Tunnel a single connection via a shared screen (for example RDP). The listener will open a window that shows bizarre patterns, the forwarder will "read" the patterns and answer by typing keys read by the listener.
This forwarder requires that you have embedded-jetty.jar from the HTTPTunnel listener addon using embedded Jetty Server in your classpath.
Run an embedded Jetty server on a given interface and port. Add a HTTPTunnel servlet to it that listens on the given prefix, using the given engine. If a plus sign is given after the port number, more prefixes can be added to the same Jetty server. The last one may not have a plus sign so that the server is started at the end.
Simple listener that accepts connections of an Internal@ forwarder. These connections are routed internally within the same jTCPfwd instance (without using real TCP ports), and might be useful, for example, as intermediary forwarders/listeners for Mux@ forwarders.
Produce a watchdog connection every delay milliseconds. This connection should eventually terminate at a Watchdog@ forwarder (in a different jTCPfwd process) and is used to send random data and a digest of them and to verify the digest of the answer. If the timeout parameter is given and no successful handshake could be performed within the timeout (or a handshake failed), jTCPfwd is exited with error code 42 (which should be used to restart it automatically). If no timeout is given, no action is taken (which is useful if only the instance with the Watchdog forwarder should be restarted). If an initial timeout is given, this timeout is used before the first successful watchdog connection; if none is given, the watchdog will not act until it has at least performed one successful handshake.
Wait until a peer knocks (determined via a knock rule), then accept one TCP connection from his IP address (or from all addresses if the IP address cannot be determined) within the given timeout (if any).
Alternatively to accepting one connection (like a ListenOnce@ forwarder), a custom forwarder can be used to connect back to the peer. The given varname in the forwarder is replaced by the IP address, or by 0.0.0.0/0 if the IP address is not known.
Knock rules are modules as well; the knock rule will use the same separator character for its paramters as the knock listener or forwarder used; the first parameter is the rule name.
Listen on UDP port port and examine all packets. Packets that match bytes (a binary expression with mask or a regex (regex does not work for triggering)) will trigger one allowed connection from the packet's source address. Optionally send back a response (a binary expression without mask).
Listen on TCP port port and examine the input. If the current input starts with bytes ("friend" CR LF by default), accept one connection from the connection's source address. Optionally send a response and close the connection (when giving a response expression that is non-empty but generates an empty byte array, like :, no response is sent, but the socket is closed).
Special UDP knock rule to enable using Microsoft's nslookup tool (one of the very few Windows standard tools that can send UDP packets) for knocking.
To use, open nslookup and enter set port=port followed by openname ip, where openname is the openname configured, by default open, and ip is the ip or host name of the machine this knock rule runs on. The response IP is 22.214.171.124 in that case.
When ipname is used instead of openname, the port will not be opened, but the DNS response returned is the IP that would have been whitelisted if openname had been used.
For the names, only lowercase letters should be used. A name of - will disable the name (disabling both names is pointless, though.)
Dummy knock rule to use the Knock listener as a connection count or rate limiter. This knock rule will create count allowed wildcard records (allowing a connection from any IP) in total, then the knock rule will be dead. Every burstcount (default: 1) records, a delay of delay (default:0) milliseconds is enforced.
Take a single connection and forward its content to multiple forwarders. Only the response of the first forwarder is returned to the listener, the others are ignored.
This forwarder takes one connection and distributes the encoded output from the Combine@ listener over multiple connections of the forwarder given.
Used to tunnel multiple (TCP) connections via UDP
Used to tunnel a single (TCP) connection via UDP. Less overhead than UDPTunnel@
Forward UDP packets that arrive in a (TCP) connection (from the UDP@ listener). A given part of the UDP packets can be dropped prior to sending to test how UDP protocols cope with packet loss.
Forward a connection over a SOCKS proxy.
Used for emulating "flaky" internet connections. Only successPercentage percent of the connections will reach forwarder, and they will be forcefully terminated between minMsec and maxMsec later. This can also be used for testing a Restartable@ forwarder, which can cope with these situations.
Connect to a Restartable@ listener. The connection between those two may disconnect at any time and this forwarder will re-establish the connection without any data loss.
This forwarder accepts all connections and eats all input, never returning anything.
Tunnel connections via a shared filesystem. Incoming connections will create files in the given directory that can be read by a File@ listener.
Tunnel a single connection via the clipboard. The clipboard can be read by a Clipboard@ forwarder.
Tunnel a single connection via a shared (RDP) screen. The listener will open a window that shows bizarre patterns, the forwarder will "read" the patterns and answer by typing keys read by the listener.
Connect to a HTTPTunnel listener. If timeout is zero, data is streamed to the HTTP tunnel (which will fail if a proxy insists in scanning the whole payload first); alternatively, it will be chunked and a new chunk will be sent every timeout milliseconds.
If baseURL contains #DATA#, the camouflage engine is used. In this case, the baseURL should contain all parameters, and the #DATA# is replaced by the actual camouflage data. #POST# is used as separator between the URL and post data, #C# is replaced by a counter (to avoid aggressive caching by a proxy), #R15# is a random number 1 to 15, #D15# are 15 random digits, and #H15# are 15 random hex digits. Other counts instead of 15 are possible, too, of course.
Otherwise, the normal HTTP tunnel handler is used. baseURL should be the base URL to the servlet, without the "?".
Accept watchdog connections. These connection originate at a Watchdog@ listener and are used to send random data and a digest of them and to verify the digest of the answer. If the timeout parameter is given and no successful connection could be received within the timeout (or a handshake failed), jTCPfwd is exited with error code 42 (which should be used to restart it automatically). If no timeout is given, no action is taken (which is useful if only the instance with the Watchdog listener should be restarted). If an initial timeout is given, this timeout is used before the first successful watchdog connection; if none is given, the watchdog will not act until it has at least performed one successful handshake.
Simple forwarder that forwards connections to an Internal@ listener. These connections are routed internally within the same jTCPfwd instance (without using real TCP ports), and might be useful, for example, as intermediary forwarders/listeners for Mux@ forwarders.
This forwarder can be used to remotely control a jTCPfwd instance via one of its listeners. You can connect to it via telnet and show output, restart the instance, or manipulate forwarding rules.
Individual commands have to be enabled to make Console useful. By default, only help and exit are available. log enables the log command, which will show everything written to stdout or stderr since its last invocation. restart enables the restart command, which will exit with an exit code of 10. You will have to provide your own wrapper which will restart jtcpfwd in that case.
The rules option is the most sophisticated one. Usually it is used in a config file called "consolerules", because its commands will edit that particular file. list shows a list of rules, add can add a rule to the end of the file, remove can remove a rule from the file by index, and activate can be used to activate a rule by index.
To avoid accidental removal of the Console@ rule itself, the options may start with an exclamation mark (!), which will be ignored when starting the console but at the same time mark all the rules above this rule (including this rule) as read-only. This feature is optional, but it can be quite useful.
For example, one could design a consolerules file like this:
1234 DeMux@#32=Console@!log,restart,rules#1$%=localhost:100$% 10001 somewhere:80 10002 somewhere-else:80 # ... 10099 last-place:80
This will enable you to multiplex port 1234 (which has to be reachable from outside) to multiple local ports which can be individually configured using the console. The first rule is read-only. As character 32 is a space, it is possible to connect to the console without requiring a local multiplexer, just by hitting the spacebar after connecting to port 1234. A command file that calls
java -jar jTCPfwd.jar @consolerules
in a loop can be used to make this setup restart automatically when needed. Depending on the stability of the "only incoming listener", it might be useful to add a Watchdog@ forwarder as well.
This forwarder will connect the first connection to stdin and stdout, so that the console where jTCPfwd is running on can be used as a simple telnet client. All following connections will be refused.
Trigger a knock listener and then forward the connection to another forwarder. Peer is the IP address of the peer. For more detail about knock rules see the Knock@ listener.
Definitely the most sophisticated forwarder. This will connect to another forwarder, but will stream all incoming and/or outcoming data through filters.
Separate filters can be given for both input and output, and if more filters in one direction are needed, the filters in the other direction can be left empty.
A filter can either forward data to the same direction or forward them to the opposite direction (like the Echo filter). Filters can as well close the connection when they like to or show additional information or log data.
Echo all data to the other direction as well. When the optional orig parameter is given (value is irrelevant), the data is sent to the original output stream, bypassing all the filters for the opposite direction.
Encrypt all data using the given symmetric cipher algorithm, in mode with padding (see the Java Crypto documentation for a list of supported algorithms, modes and paddings), using the given keydata (a binary expression with secondary name iv for giving an initialization vector)
If no mode and padding is given, /CFB8/NoPadding (which has a granularity of one byte, and does not increas the size at all) is used. If no IV is given in the keydata, but an IV is needed, a random IV is generated and sent before sending the actual encrypted data.
Decrypt data that has been encrypted by the Encrypt filter.
Crude hack to manually flush data via a telnet connection. The parameter consists of three single (different) characters only, if the parameter is too short or missing, defaults are used (marker=#, escape=-, close=.)
All characters received are written into a buffer. If two marker characters are received, the buffer is flushed to the output (excluding the two marker characters). A marker character followed by an escape character is replaced by a marker character alone in the buffer. A marker character followed by a close character will close the socket. A marker character followed by any other character is added to the buffer as is (i. e. both the marker and the other character are added) reducing the need of the escape character for cases where a marker, escape or close character should follow the marker character (which occur rarely or never if you choose your marker character wisely).
A filter mainly used for testing stuff (like error correction protocols). This filter will randomly flip every bit with a probability of numerator/denomenator. If some of the optional parameters are given, it will ensure that within every burstLength consecutive bits (starting at every individual bit) there will be between min and max flips.
Add a checksum to every burst of bytes written.
Check and strip the checksum created by the AddCRC filter. If the checksum is invalid, the socket is forcefully closed. A Restart@ listener/forwarder can be used to make the connection continue gracefully.
Delay every single write by the given amound of milliseconds. Further writes are not blocked, unless queuelength is given and there are already that many "packets" in the queue.
For example, when queuelength = 2 and delay = 500, and 3 writes are performed at t=0, t=200 and t=400, the first write will be forwarded at t=500, the second at t=700 and the third at t=900. In addition, the third write will block until the first packet is sent (i. e. until t=500).
Limit throughput to bytes every msec; collect bytes up to burstbytes if they are not used. While the througput is limited, the write operation blocks.
So if 100 bytes per 100 msec are allowed with a burst size of 1000 bytes, when after several seconds of idleness 1150 bytes should be sent, the first 1000 bytes are sent instantaneously, the next 100 bytes after 100 msec, and the rest 50 bytes after another 100 msec. In case another write of 100 bytes is following immediately, the first 50 bytes are written instantaneous, following by the rest 50 bytes after another 100 msec.
The HTTPTunnel servlet can be deployed to a servlet container (like Apache Tomcat) and acts like a listener that can connect to any forwarders.
Before deploying, you might want to edit the deployment descriptor (web.xml) inside to suit your needs.
Basically, you can add as many jtcpfwd.servlet.HTTPTunnelServlet servlet descriptors to the deployment descriptor, each of them being mapped to a path by a servlet-mapping and having two initialization parameters: listener and forwarder.
In the listener parameter you can use the special listener name ThisServlet@ (also nested within other listeners) which will represent connections tunneled via this servlet. The example web.xml uses this add a peer filter that only allows localhost.
You do not have to use the ThisServlet@ listener name at all (might be useful if you want to have a jtcpfwd instance running inside a servlet container), but in this case it is advisable to make the servlet load automatically using the load-on-startup tag. This is used in the example web.xml file to forward local port 10001 to localhost:20002.
An empty or missing engine parameter will enable the default engine, which will use a GET connection for retrieving data and a simultaneous POST connection for sending data, trying to use an artificial content length in case no timeout is given, so that data can be streamed over the same HTTP connection. A special content type of application/x-tunneled is used to make detecting proxy error pages easier. With a timeout, both directions are chunked (using GET and POST as before), using the same protocol as the Restartable@ listener and forwarder.
An engine parameter starting with Camouflage= will enable the camouflage engine. That one will only use normal (url-encoded) POST packets, and only normal text/html responses. Only one field of the POST request is used (the one given in the engine parameter after the equals sign), and the content is encoded using an encoding that resembles natural language text (from casing, whitespace and punctuation). The response is a HTML page with similarily encoded text.
This engine is slower (more timeouts needed since there is only one request for both sending and receiving) and has to send more data (text) for the same payload. However, the chances of circumventing proxy restrictions are better with this engine.
When writing your own forwarders, or testing third-party forwarders, it is useful to have a forwarder tester tool that does some nasty stuff (like open a connection and disconnect quickly, or disconnect one end while the other end is sending). For that purpose, jtcpfwd contains two test classes, jtcpfwd.ForwarderTest and jtcpfwd.SingleForwarderTest. The first one will try to spawn a lot of threads each testing one connection at the same time (Hit the return key to stop spawning new threads and wait for the existing threads to finish).
The second one will only create one forwarder connection ever, which will never be closed (Useful to test with forwarders that usually require to be wrapped with Combine@.). A fourth parameter is used to specify whether the socket should be tested unidirectionally (and in which direction) or bidirectionally.
A third class, jtcpfwd.ForwarderTestRunner (only included in the source distribution) can be used to automatically start ForwarderTest setups, let them run for a few seconds, and shut them down again. Two ant targets, problematictests and unproblematictests, run some of the tests automatically, where the former tests might interfere with other processes (like clipboard or screen), take several tens of minutes to run or crash ocasionally, while the latter ones will only need free ports between 52000 and 52999 and run only for a minute.